Incidence and Comparison of Typhoid Fever in Rural and Urban Areas of District Swat; A Cross-Sectional Study


  • Naqeeb Ahmad Government Post Graduate Jahanzeb College Saidu, Affiliation with University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Author
  • Karim Ullah Author
  • Muhammad Subhan Nazar Author
  • Maham Saeed Author
  • Ayesha Mushtaq Author
  • Muhammad Junaid Author
  • Memoona Author
  • Abbas Ahmad Author
  • Sajjad Hussain Author



KEYWORDS: Incidence, Prevalence, Typhoid Fever, Prevention


WHO estimates the global typhoid fever disease burden at 11-20 million cases annually, resulting in about 128 000–161 000 deaths per year. Typhoid risk is higher in populations that lack access to safe water and adequate sanitation. From November 2018 to April 2019, District Swat served as the site of the current study. This study intends to assess the prevalence and contrast of typhoid fever in District Swat's rural and urban areas. In this study, 600 samples were gathered from Tehsil Babozai and Kabal's rural and urban districts. The gender, age and demographic data were collected through questionnaire, and lab tests were also done. According to the findings, the prevalence rates were respectively 54.5% and 60% in urban and rural areas. The study also demonstrates that the prevalence of typhoid was higher in females than in males, and it was also higher in adults and people of younger ages than in those who were older. Consuming contaminated drinking water and food, unhygienic environment, poor sanitation were the main sources of typhoid. Typhoid needs proper interventions by awareness campaigns about risk factors of the disease and the seminars should be conducted at academic levels to spread awareness among adults. The disease can only be managed with the aforementioned tactics.


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How to Cite

Incidence and Comparison of Typhoid Fever in Rural and Urban Areas of District Swat; A Cross-Sectional Study. (2023). Avicenna Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(2).

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